On these pages you will find the rough works of
Raham Asha رهام اشه
concerning the Perso-Aryan world.
abestāg/ Avesta, zand, ayārdag
Scriptures and Scripiture Knowledge
The tradition of the Magi about the Avesta
The sacred, religious and cultural tradition of the Aryans
pand, handarz, āzend, …
Ancient Perso-Aryan kingship
The State in Persian Tradition
išxan, šāh, xvadāy, vispuhr
šāhīh ped ērānšahr
Education of the ancients
hamōzišn ud frahang
The scribe class
The scripts of the Persians
Calendars, Dates and Chronologies, ...
sālnāmag, māhrōz, ud sālmar, ud cē
Astronomy, Astrology, Cosmology, Cosmogony, ...
starušmārīh, axtarmārīh, gētīgdānišnīh, bundahišnīh, ud cē
Hemerology, Menology, Ophiomancy, Astral omens, and Lapidary of Sacred Stones (their Magical and Medicinal Powers), Bird Oracles, etc.
rōznāmag, māhnāmag, mārnāmag, axtarnāmag, nišān ī muhragīhā, murvnīšīh, ud cē
bizeškīh/ bišehkīh, drustbedīh
The Book of Lands
vazurgmihr ī bōxtagān
Vazurgmihr, the wise counsellor of Husrō (531-579)
Suhravardī and Āδar Kēvān
The “Parsi” School of Āδar Keyvān
Zamān ‘Time’ in the last texts of the Magi
A Cosmographical treatise in Gujarati
There exists a compilation of different fragments, written in Gujarati with interlinear Persian versions, on cosmography. The text of the treatise is found in the end of one manuscript of the Xvardag Abestāg.
The story of the priest Dēnyār
and the daughter to whom Muḥammad was born
دستور دينيار و پيامبر ِ دمدار
The Aryan and the Jew
How the Magi look upon the three « Judaisms »
On a number of occasions Jews (jehūd) and Judaism (jehūdīh) appear in the writings of the Magi. In these texts, Judaism constitutes the very antithesis of Magianism, the doctrine of the Jews (kēš ī jehūd) as opposed to the good religion (dēn māzdesn), the evil rule (dušxvadāyīh) versus the good rule (huxvadāyīh). Both good and evil rules have been put to the test three times –the Aryan rule is presented as the legacy of Yima and the Jewish rule as that of Dahāka.
The question of conversion
From the Discourse of Meliton of Sardis
A Syriac text of the apologist Melito of Sardis exists in the manuscript Add. 14658 (London BL), f. 176-f. 181. It professes to be an apology for Christianity addressed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (161-180) about A.D. 170. It bears the title of
« The Discourse of Meliton the Philosopher »,
which was in the presence of Antoninus Cæsar
Here is the text and (Persian and English) translation of a fragment of this work concerning the origin of Polytheism and idolatry – «I will write and show how and for what reasons images were made to kings and tyrants, and they came to be regarded as gods. »
The coming of the King Vahrām Varzāvand
The present short text expresses the hope of the advent of Vahrām, the Aryan hero who will come in a future period and will restore the Aryan kingdom –in the Jāmāspīg he is the king of Pedišxvārgar. J. C. Tavadia established that it is a poem with rhyme (according to Bahar it is a verse-text with a series of twelve-syllable verses ), and called it “a rhymed ballad”.
There exists another text concerning the coming of King Vahrām. In fact, his compiler has interpolated some glosses in the original (above) text. Edgar Blochet found it in a manuscript which once before was at his disposal. Another copy is found in the manuscript R 591 (K.R. Cama Oriental Institute, Mumbai), 49v-50 v.
The 7 stars of the constellation Ursa Major
The manuscript LXI contains four texts belonging to the Pārsī divinatory literature.
The Lady with the mirror
The witch Xnąθaitī and the hero Kǝrǝsāspa
سميرَميس و نينوس، شميرَم و ارا، شيرين و فرهاد
(گزارش ِ هلنی (کتسياس
( گزارش ِ ارمنی (خورناتسی
( گزارش ِ پارسی (نظامی
A Banquet Speech
āfrīn ī sūr
This is a benediction pronounced in the sūr “where excellent food was served and where cooks and table boys, singers and musicians, and gate-keepers were engaged.” The text is also an example of after-meal speech at banquets and at anniversary ceremonies (different from death anniversary), the rōzgār. The text as reached us dates back to the Sasanian era; and a list of Persian dignitaries in it shows that it belongs to the sixth century, or as Tavadia states: “We have found only the upper limit, namely the reign of Xusrav I.”
guzastag abdallāh (GA)
The accursed ʿAbdallāh
The Pārsīg treatise, guzastag abdallāh (GA), gives an account of a theological debate which took place between the Manichaean ʿAbdallāh and the high priest Ādarfarrōbay in the presence of the Arab Caliph al-Ma'mūn (813-833 A.D.).
mādayān ī jōšt ī fryān
The Book of Yōišta of the Fryāna (MJF)
The treatise Xusrō son of Kavād and a Page
The treatise husrav ī kavādān ud rēdak-ē (HKR) relates the story of a princely orphan from the district of Ēranvinārdkavād. The main part of it consists of questions and answers between king Husrō I (531-579 A.D.) and the Page.
The Yašt of the Excellent Order
The medicine for contentment
dārūg ī hunsandīh
The dārūg ī hunsandīh is a prescription for preparing the medicine of contentment.
The Parthian Prince's
(The so-called Hymn of the Pearl)
Since 1871, when the text of the Parthian Prince's Remarkable Journey (also called the Hymn of the Pearl) was edited, western scholars have devoted a great many studies to it. W. Wright who first edited it from Syriac manuscripts, found it “a most curious document”, and especially “out of place” in the Acts of Thomas. Macke, one of pioneers in the research of the Hymn, found it one of the most difficult, most inexplicable products of Syrian literature, and perhaps also the oldest product of independent poetry by the Syrians; and hesitatingly attributed it to Bardesanes “the Gnostic”. The Hymn itself has been understood as an expression of Gnosticism, Manichaeism, Christianism, or Buddhism; the adventures of the hero of the Hymn have been compared with the life of Bardesanes, Cerdo (Κέρδων), Mani, Christ, Thomas; and the composition of the Hymn has been attributed to Bardesanes, Mani or a Manichaean, a Christian or even a Jewish one.
Indeed, the Hymn has many points in common with any of these doctrines. It is even probable that it inspired some gnostic writers. But as Manichaeism provides a distorted and perverted version of Mazdaism, some gnostic texts also give a distorted version of the Hymn. By outlining some commonalities, it is easy to attribute the Hymn to any religious milieu.
The book consists of two parts: It begins with an introduction. The purpose of the Introduction is double: To present a survey of man’s destiny in the Mazdaean doctrine that sheds light on the destiny of the Parthian prince described in the Hymn, and to give a sketch of Mazdaism in the light of the Hymn. Then comes the text of the Hymn, in Pārsīg with English translation. I have prepared the Pārsīg poem, and Ātar Torābi, who is a skilled musician as well as a savant, has started composing the music for it. This is followed by Syriac and Greek versions, with English translations, as well as the notes to clarify these versions and especially some difficult terms used by the poet or translator. The second part provides one text, in Persian, that was probably inspired by the Hymn. It ends with a parable in two languages, Sogdian and “Pārsīg”.
The last intercalation
The Codex TD 26
In March 2011 I had an opportunity of visiting Mumbai, and seeing and reading some of the manuscripts of the library of the K.R. Cama Oriental Institute. Mrs. Dr. Nawaz Mody, Mr. Muncherji N. M. Cama and the librarians very kindly made all special arrangements required for an access of the manuscripts which were not yet listed. Out of twenty-four manuscripts I could page through I found two manuscripts of a special interest. I wrote by hand some fragments of them. Here is a brief survey of the contents of the codex TD 26, along with the transcription and translation of two texts of it.
Journal of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute,
N° 72, 2012, 9-21.
The Colophons of Mihrābān Kayxusrō
About some corresponding dates of Pārsī and Hindū eras
Mihrābān Kayxusrō, a Pārsī teaching priest, at the instance of a Pārsī notable of Cambay (Guj. ખંભાત), Čāhil Sangan, came to India (probably in A. Y. 690/ A. D. 1321), and wrote several Avesta and Pārsīg manuscripts at Cambay, Thana (Mar. ठाणे), and Navsari (Guj. નવસારી). He also copied there the manuscripts copied by his great grand uncle Rustam Mihrābān. His literary activities are recorded up to the Pārsī year 720 (+ 20?) of Yazdegird.
A Grammatical Précis
First published 2018 by
Tele: (+9821) 66862143, (+98) 9122472838
(The so-called Pahlavi)
Parts of Speech, Word Formation, and Phonology
Tele: (+9821) 66862143, (+98) 9122472838
The present book is, in the first place, a descriptive grammar of the Pārsīg language as far as we have it. It includes morphology and phonology; but it gives no syntax. Whereas the first two parts of the book concern morphology, the last deals with phonology. The book intends to be accessible to those who wish to study the Pārsīg texts as well as those specializing in the study of Perso-Aryan languages –they can start reading from the third part.
This book has evolved in the course of many years; however, it is not a new and improved edition of my previous book on the Pārsīg language , but a renewed attempt in its own right. A forthcoming compendious dictionary will complete this work.
A revised edition of the Pārsīg version of
The Memorial of Jāmāspa
The Parthian Prince's
(The so-called Hymn of the Pearl)
The visionary journey of Vīrāza to heaven and hell
Telephone: (+9821) 88430499,
The Doubt-removing book of Mardānfarrox
Paul the Persian
A glossary of Avesta words and their Pārsīg equivalents,
based on the Zand,
the so-called Frahang ī ōīm: ēk
Text and Grammatical Notes
The K. R. Cama Oriental Institute