_Calendars, Dates and Chronologies
sālnāmag, māhrōz, ud sālmar
sālnāmag, māhrōz, ud sālmar
The Avesta periods of the year
The annual rites of the Avesta were organized with six solar dates which were originally determined by the annual risings and settings of some “chief” stars and formed the solar model of the year. These dates were called yāiryaēibyō aṣahe ratubyō ‘the periods of the year, (the periods) of Order’. It seems that the Pārsīg term gāhāmbār (from Av. gāθā- & *bāra- ‘occasion’) had been chosen to distinguish the “period” (ratu: gāhāmbār) of the year from the “period” (ratu: gāh) of the day. The calendar of gāhāmbārs had been given in the Avesta nask Pahag. Some Avesta fragments concerning the calendar have survived in a few manuscripts of the Zand of the Āfrīnagān ī Gāhāmbār. In these fragments, we find the days of the months corresponding to each dies solemnies, and time-spans between each two consecutive annual feasts. These periods of the year are also related to the six periods of creation. The last redactors of the Zand have failed to furnish the correct meaning and the original time of the Gāhāmbārs. And the new interpreters of the Zoroastrian calendar have based their arguments on these late and partially incorrect redactions.
The year of the Maga
Varāhamihira, a Maga Brāhmaṇa, in his Pañcasiddhāntikā, has described the Persian year of 365 days, with 12 months each of 30 days, and 5 additional days. Apart from the testimony of the new period of the Persians, Varāhamihira has given the Sanskrit names of the thirty days of the month.
_The structure of the Sogdian calendar
according to the later Sogdian and Uyγur sources
In Sogdiana the 365-day calendar was in continuous use, side by side with a lunisolar calendar. The Sogdian calendar lists indicated the Sogdian month and day, the weekday, the hour and the fifth part of the hour of the day or night in which appears the new light during each “solar” month.
تير و تيرگان
تيرگان و اکيتو، ميدياريم و ميديوشم ، نيمخب و اجغار، تير و پاييز ، تير و نبو، تير و دبيری، تير و دبيرستان کردن
The month Tir and the feast of ceremonial ablution (Tiragan)
This article(in Persian) shows that the beginning of the month TIr was the autumn equinox.
On the calendar of Persian festivals
According to Bērōnī’s Canon Masudicus
The Canon Masudicus of Bērōnī is an encyclopaedia of astronomical sciences. Its second part, chapter 11, gives a résumé of the festivals of the months of the Persians.
An example from the Book of the Crown
In this chapter the author describes the royal custom of the Sasanians during the festivals of Nōgrōz and Mihragān. Notice that, in the Sasanian period, the New Year (nōgrōz) marked the summer solstice, and the feast of Mithra (mihragān) the winter solstice.
نوروز و مهرگان اندر يک تاجنامه
 . The style and the substance of the book make manifest that the book is falsely attributed to Jāḥiẓ.
The chronology of the Aryan Land (Persia)
The genealogy of the Kavi-dynasty
The chronology of kings
The Finite Time
The millennium of Zaraθuštra
The term of centuries
The symbolism of metals
The four periods
The religious and royal traditions and the end of the Achaemenian Kingship
The Old Persian Era
The Hvāfrita dynasty : the Sasanians
and the Persian world-years
Mani followed the Aryan tradition of an aeon of 12 millennia, and fitted it into his own picture of the world. Each millennium has a period of 100 years, but not as the final period of the world-year in the Persian model, but as an additional period; this extra period is called peyvann/ Sogd. pacβand ‘connection’. Mani himself lived in the last millennium, that of Pisces.
A Sogdian fragment, M 767 ii
Text and translation